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Furthermore, the water storing capacity is positively influenced. Until present days these are still an important part of the agro economy of Madeira Island.

Natividade, Joaquim Vieira Springer International Publishing, pp Ele disse ser algo radical, tirar a carne do prato. The density was calculated with the following formula: To avoid soil erosion cleared steep slopes had to be terraced immediately.

Some of the wall stones were worked to match better and to provide stability. To reasonably decide which pafa should be attributed to a specific landscape, a society needs to be informed about 1 the functions and services provided, 2 the environmental quality safeguarded by traditional practices in agriculture, forestry and pastoralism, and 3 the quality of the agricultural products.

World Soil Resources Report 84Rome. A typical dry-stone wall consists of one or more layers of stones that support the soil behind the wall FAO n.

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Early activities such as hunting and gathering had only a small influence on the natural processes in landscapes. The ongoing abandonment of agricultural activities on the terraces, created and maintained by generations of farmers over centuries, does not only leave a fragile landscape with unmaintained terrace walls, but puts a huge amount of traditional knowledge on sustainable land use at risk.

A factor that apra have supported the decision of cultivating this area so early is the availability of water all year round.

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O Tom Regan, em seu livro, sobre o qual comento em http: Flattish areas with thick layers of soil were preferred to areas with a likely better solar exposure, but less favorable terrain conditions. Assefa, Engdawork; Bork, Hans-Rudolf The settlements are circumscribed in the south by mountains rising steeply to elevations of m a.

Consequently, the practice of adding organic material from outside the terraced area has disappeared, too. Usually people tended to first occupy accessible areas and later, when the demand for agricultural land could not be satisfied by the cultivated terraces remote steep slopes were utilized, too.

Age of terraces according to 14 C-dating results Aumentar Original png, k.

Agricultural terraces as a proxy to landscape history on Madeira island, Portugal

The accessibility of the particular terraced areas range from m of distance and 50 m of elevation to m of distance and m of elevation from the nearest road. The measurements were then started by filling the outer ring with water, which was kept at a stable level by refilling it during the measurements. After finishing the field work the drawings were digitalized. Artigo do professor Gary Francione: In the interviews cross-validation of information given by interview partners was an important issue, questions on the same topic were directed to several people in order to reduce possible bias in the provided information.

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Nevertheless, in recent years some of the most labor-intensive practices, like the collection of leaf-fodder and bedding in the mountains, have already been abandoned. The space between the stone wall and the deepened slope segment above was then filled pada the soil that had been removed before. With a probability of And finally, in Antikythera GreeceBevan et al.

Not at all sampling sites charcoals that would fit the necessary dimensions for 14 C analysis were found. The annual pruning of vines resulted in huge amounts of tiny branches.

Putz, isso eh mto popular por aqui. The traditional knowledge is a very valuable heritage and in terms of food security and prevention of natural disasters could regain importance in the future, particularly in times marked by climatic changes. These population movements lead to an over aging of rural populations and put the century-long developed knowledge on sustainable farming in marginally productive and often environmentally sensitive areas at risk.